Resistance to Ivermectin
The following articles clearly demonstrate the superior efficacy of abamectin versus ivermectin in sheep.
Ivermectin-resistant Ostertagia circumcincta from sheep in the lower North Island and their susceptibility to other macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics.
Leathwick DM , Moen IC , Miller CM , Sutherland IA, New Zealand Veterinary Journal 49(3), 123-124, 2001
To confirm the ivermectin resistance status of a strain of Ostertagia circumcincta which was isolated from a sheep farm in the lower North Island of New Zealand and to assess the susceptibility of this strain to other macrocycliclactone anthelmintics.(ML group)
Twenty-five lambs housed indoors were each infected with 12,000 L3 larvae of the above parasite strain. Approximately 3 weeks after infection the lambs were allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups (3 groups of 6, and 1 group of 7 lambs), one of which remained untreated while the others were drenched orally with ivermectin, moxidectin or abamectin at 0.2 mg/kg liveweight. Faecal egg counts (FECs) before and after treatment, and post-mortem worm burdens 10 days after treatment were examined to assess efficacies of each anthelmintic.
Treatment with ivermectin reduced the mean FEC by only 18% and the mean worm burden by only 42%, whereas moxidectin and abamectin reduced FECs by 92% and worm burdens by 95%.
These results, together with a similar case described recently from the South Island, confirm the emergence of ivermectin resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in New Zealand. The superior efficacy of moxidectin and abamectin in this case indicates that, following the emergence of resistance to ivermectin, some short-term practical use may still be made of these other anthelmintics. However, their continued use will undoubtedly result in increased levels of resistance and eventual therapeutic failure of these products also.
Efficacy of abamectin against ivermectin-resistant strain of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep.
Vet Parasitol. 2004 May 26;121(3-4):277-83.
Alka, Gopal RM, Sandhu KS, Sidhu PK .
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab , India .
The efficacy of two formulations of abamectin, i.e. oral and injectable was determined against ivermectin-resistant strain of T. colubriformis in sheep. Twenty-four lambs were infected with 10,000 third stage larvae of ivermectin-resistant strain of T. colubriformis. Twenty-four days post-infection, the lambs were divided randomly into four groups of six animals each according to egg counts. The first group was left untreated and kept as a control. The second group was treated with ivermectin (oral) at 0.2mg kg (-1) body weight. The third group was treated with oral formulation of abamectin at 0.2mg kg (-1) body weight. The fourth group was treated with injectable formulation of abamectin at 0.2mg kg (-1) body weight. Fecal egg count and controlled slaughter tests were employed to determine the efficacy of abamectin (oral and injection) against ivermectin-resistant strain of T. colubriformis in sheep. Reduction in arithmetic mean fecal egg counts achieved by ivermectin (oral), abamectin (oral) and abamectin (injection) was 66, 98 and 76%, respectively 10 days after treatment. Ivermectin (oral), abamectin (oral) and abamectin (injection) reduced arithmetic mean worm burden by 63, 97 and 74%, respectively.
The findings demonstrated that abamectin oral formulation was more effective than abamectin injection against ivermectin-resistant strain of T. colubriformis in sheep.